Published Research

Don’t Take our Word for it

In this section, we list papers published in numerous medical journals concerning the use of or research upon the use of electrotherapy. They discuss its efficacy as a modality to be used in pain control for patients who suffer from either acute or chronic pain. We also list several published research articles pertaining to the efficacy and uses of orthopedic bracing as a treatment modality. Feel free to contact the publishers or authors to get a copy of the published article.


  1. Johnson MI, Ashton CH, Thompson JW. An in-depth study of long-term users of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Implications for clinical use of TENS. Pain. Mar 1991;44(3):221-9.
  2. Cheing GL, Hui-Chan CW. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: nonparallel antinociceptive effects on chronic clinical pain and acute experimental pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Mar 1999;80(3):305-12.
  3. American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force, “Practice Guidelines for Chronic Pain Management”,Anesthesiology 2010; 112:810 -33
  4. Noble JG, Walsh DM, Lowe AS.Interferential Therapy Review: Part 1. Mechanism of action and clinical usage. Phys Ther Rev 2000; 5: 239-245.
  5. Law PP, Cheing GL. Optimal stimulation frequency of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on people with knee osteoarthritis. J Rehabil Med. Sep 2004;36(5):220-5.
  6. Ottawa Panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for electrotherapy and thermotherapy interventions in the management of rheumatoid arthritis in adults. Phys Ther. Nov 2004;84(11):1016-43.
  7. Taylor P, Hallett M, Flaherty L. Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Pain. Oct 1981;11(2):233-40.
  8. Pike PM. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Its use in the management of postoperative pain. Anaesthesia. Feb 1978;33(2):165-71..8.Cetin N, Aytar A, Atalay A, et al. Comparing hot pack, short-wave diathermy, ultrasound, and TENS on isokinetic strength, pain, and functional status of women with osteoarthritic knees: a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. Jun 2008;87(6):443-51.
  9. Cipriano G Jr, de Camargo Carvalho AC, Bernardelli GF, et al. Short-term transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation after cardiac surgery: effect on pain, pulmonary function and electrical muscle activity. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. Aug 2008;7(4):539-43.
  10. Dubinsky RM, Miyasaki J. Assessment: efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the treatment of pain in neurologic disorders (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. Jan 12 2010;74(2):173-6.
  11. Tugay N, Akbayrak T, Demirtürk F, et al. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current in primary dysmenorrhea. Pain Med. May-Jun 2007;8(4):295-300.
  12. Borjesson M, Eriksson P, Dellborg M, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in unstable angina pectoris. Coron Artery Dis. Aug-Sep 1997;8(8-9):543-50.
  13. Jayme MK, Concha ME, Sarino JA, Uy HG. Effectivity of the electronic dental anesthesia in controlling pain caused by local anesthetic injections. J Philipp Dent Assoc. Dec-1999 Feb 1998;50(3):39-52.
  14. Chen L, Tang J, White PF, et al. The effect of location of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on postoperative opioid analgesic requirement: acupoint versus nonacupoint stimulation. Anesth Analg. Nov 1998;87(5):1129-34.
  15. Hamza MA, White PF, Ahmed HE, et al. Effect of the frequency of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on the postoperative opioid analgesic requirement and recovery profile. Anesthesiology. Nov 1999;91(5):1232-8.
  16. Pearl ML, Fischer M, McCauley DL, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation as an adjunct for controlling chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in gynecologic oncology patients. Cancer Nurs. Aug 1999;22(4):307-11.
  17. Roscoe JA, Matteson SE, Morrow GR, et al. Acustimulation wrist bands are not effective for the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea in women with breast cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage. Apr 2005;29(4):376-84.
  18. Rowbotham DJ. Recent advances in the non-pharmacological management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth. Jul 2005;95(1):77-81.
  19. Solomon RA, Viernstein MC, Long DM. Reduction of postoperative pain and narcotic use by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Surgery. Feb 1980;87(2):142-6.
  20. Murina F, Bianco V, Radici G, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to treat vestibulodynia: a randomised controlled trial. BJOG. Aug 2008;115(9):1165-70.
  21. Poitras S, Brosseau L. Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, interferential current, electrical muscle stimulation, ultrasound, and thermotherapy. Spine J. Jan-Feb 2008;8(1):226-33.
  22. Cottingham B, Phillips PD, Davies GK, et al. The effect of subcutaneous nerve stimulation (SCNS) on pain associated with osteoarthritis of the hip. Pain. Jul 1985;22(3):243-8.


  1. Griffin LY, Albohm MJ, Arendt, EA, et al. Understanding and Preventing Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: A Review of the Hunt Valley II Meeting, January 2005. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2006 34:9. 1512-1532.
  2. Paterno MV. Paper #2. Presented AOSSM Annual Meeting; July 11-14, 2013; Chicago.
  3. Wright RW, Magnussen RA, Dunn WR, Spindler KP, Ipsilateral Graft and Contralateral ACL Rupture at Five Years or More Following ACL Reconstruction. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Am. 2011;93:1159-1165.
  4. Spindler et al. Return to High School and College-Level Football After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. Published online Aug. 24, 2012.
adminPublished Research